Frequently Asked Questions

Q: A staff member has left the department and I need to access their work files.

Written permission via email is required from the chair/director or business officer of the department or program stating this request. Clearly describe which employee requires access, what specific files are needed (all files, or specific folders), what level of access is needed (i.e. read-only, read/write, etc.), and the location of the data that needs to be accessed. This written permission must be added to a ticket before access can be granted.

Q: Am I able to sync any of my work e-mail to my mobile devices?

Yes, we support the use of ActiveSync on Medicine Exchange, to allow mobile device access to email and calendar information.

Q: Can I photocopy/scan/fax here? How?

No, we don’t provide photocopying or fax services.

Q: Can I print here?

No. Printers, scanners, and photocopiers are available at the Gerstein Science Information Centre.

Q: Can I use p2p (peer-to-peer) software on campus?

p2p software can have legitimate, legal uses, so it is acceptable. However, the university has a strict, zero-tolerance policy on the use of p2p software to illegally distribute data, such as copyrighted movies. The network is monitored for this activity, and if it is detected then your IP will be blocked, and your divisional IT support group will be contacted.

Q: Can I use Zoom or Skype in the meeting rooms at Discovery Commons?

Zoom, Skype, Webex, and others are popular tools for webconferencing. MSB 3174, one of the Discovery Commons meeting rooms, is equipped with a webcam, and the microphones and speakers in the room are configured to optimize audio for these platforms. We can help with set up, but we don’t support the products themselves and have no control over the quality of the calls.

Q: Do you provide classroom technology support for ACE/LSM classrooms?

We can only provide classroom technology support for MD Program curriculum events. For other events, classroom technology support can be requested from Learning Space Management (formerly ACE). Their website is:

Q: How can I create a departmental email account if I don’t have a UTORexchange account?

Discovery Commons has a procedure in place that we’ve worked out with UTORExchange personnel to do this for you. Please create a ticket with Discovery Commons, including the following information you’ve been given by Information Commons:

  1. Library No.
  2. Alternate ID:/Patron Number
  3. AMS/FIS code
  4. And a Display Name for the account which will go into the “From:” field of any message you will send from this account.

We’ll coordinate the rest and get the account created for you.

Q: How can I delete documents from the Internal or External Assessments folders in the Promotions applications?

By the request of the Dean, departmental staff cannot delete documents from the Internal or External Assessments folders. If you require further help with this please send a request to

Q: How can I record my computer presentation and voice for a project I am working on?

You can go to and download the Camtasia relay recorder. Instructions on how to use Camtasia are lower on the page.

Q: How do hospital staff get a UTORid?

Clinical supervisors, course directors or preceptors may request access to Blackboard for hospital staff that assists them in their work with the Faculty of Medicine. If you fall into this category and will not appear in HRIS, your sponsoring department, should request a standard UTORid through Discovery Commons. These UTORids will enable you to access Blackboard only. Full access to the University’s libraries, wireless system and teaching stations are granted only to staff who are fully affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine.

Q: How do I access my Exchange account over the web?

Use the Outlook Web Access web-based interface, which is located at:

Q: How do I access the network file server using Outlook Web Access?

Log into the Outlook Web Access web-based interface (see above) using the Microsoft Internet Explorer browser, and follow these steps:

  1. Click on the Documents bar (lower left of the screen).
  2. Click on Open Location (top left of the screen).
  3. In the popup box, enter the path to the personal (M:) drive: \\meduser\yourusername$
  4. Click on Open to open this path.
  5. Click on Add to Favorites to save a bookmark to this path.
  6. Click on Open Location again.
  7. In the popup box, enter the path to the shared (N:) drive: \\medgroup\medgroup\
  8. Click on Open to open this path.
  9. Click on Add to Favorites to save a bookmark to this path.

You should now have two bookmarks under the Documents bar that will give you read only access to all of the files in your M: and N: drives. Please note that this only works with the full version of Outlook Web Access, which is available only when you are using the Microsoft Internet Explorer browser. The Documents bar is not available when using Outlook Web Access lite.

Q: How do I access the UofT wireless network?

Visit to find out how to connect.

Q: How do I add money to my TCard (to print)?

Q: How do I book a meeting room/computer lab?

Just contact with the details about your request, and the Service Desk staff will do their best to fulfill it. The type of information usually required includes:

  • The name or title of the event
  • Date(s) and time(s)
  • Number of participants
  • Audio-visual requirements
  • Type of session (meeting, class, videoconference)

Q: How do I change my Exchange password?

Log into the Outlook Web Access web-based interface (see above) and follow these steps:

  1. Click on Options (top right of the screen)
  2. Click on Change Password in the Options menu at the left
  3. Enter your old (current) password, and then your new password twice
  4. Click on the Save button at the top.

This change will take effect immediately.

Q: How do I clear my browser “cookies”?

Please note: instructions may be slightly different based on the version of your browser.

In Internet Explorer:

  • Select Tools
  • Select Internet Options
  • Click Delete in Browsing history
  • Make sure Cookies and website data is selected
  • Click Delete

In Firefox:

  • Select Tools
  • Select Options
  • Select Privacy
  • Click Show Cookies
  • Click Remove All Cookies

In Chrome:

  • Click the Chrome menu
  • Select Settings
  • Click Show advanced settings…. link
  • In Privacy click Content settings
  • In Cookies click All cookies and site data….
  • Click Remove all

Q: How do I configure my mobile device to access the Exchange server?

To connect a mobile device to the Exchange Server simply create a ticket by sending an email to We will configure your account to allow for mobile access, and will provide setup instructions (instruction sheets are also available on this site).

Q: How do I create an Exchange account in Outlook 2011 for Mac?

  1. Click on Exchange account
  2. Click on the Outlook icon
  3. Click on Tools and then on Accounts
  4. Click on Exchange account
  5. Personal Information
    • Full Name – enter your name
    • E-mail Address - enter your email address
    • User Name - medicine\ UTORid
    • Password – enter your password
    • Check the “Use SSL to Connect” box
  6. Click on Advanced tab and then on Server Tab
    • Select Microsoft Exchange
    • Server – enter
    • Check the “Use SSL to Connect” box
  7. Directory Service
    • Server – enter “meddc2”

Check the “Use SSL to Connect” box.

Q: How do I get an eToken for a new employee?

Go to and download the Etoken Request Form. Follow the instructions on the form to submit it.

Q: How do I get my UTMail+ email account?

UTmail+ is a University-wide email system that all registered learners receive accounts on. It is the replacement for the older UTORmail email system, which is being phased out.

UTmail+ is to be used for academic, course-related, and personal communication.

UTmail+ runs on the Microsoft Office365 cloud platform. In addition to email, this platform provides access to Office Web Apps that include web-optimized versions of Word, Excel, OneNote and PowerPoint. All these functions can now be accessed anywhere, anytime, via web browser or mobile device.

UTmail+ includes the ability to connect to Outlook, a large-capacity inbox, and access to password-protected online file storage through SkyDrive.

If you are a registered learner, your UTmail+ account has been created for you; simply go to to log in with your existing UTORid and password.

UTmail+ addresses end with, rather than just To forward your old address to UTmail+ visit To migrate your old account visit

For technical support, contact the Information Commons Helpdesk by email at 
or by phone at 416-978-4357.

Q: How do I know if my IP address is blocked?

To find out for sure if your IP is blocked go to the URL shown below, and click on the set of addresses that contain your IP.

Q: How do I Password Protect My Word Document?

To encrypt your file and set a password to open it:

  1. Click the Microsoft Office Button, point to Prepare, and then click Encrypt Document.
  2. In the Encrypt Document dialog box, in the Password box, type a password, and then click OK. You can type up to 255 characters. By default, this feature uses AES 128-bit advanced encryption. Encryption is a standard method used to help make your file more secure.
  3. In the Confirm Password dialog box, in the Reenter password box, type the password again, and then click OK.
  4. To save the password, save the file.

Remove password protection from a Word document:

  1. Use the password to open the document.
  2. Click the Microsoft Office Button, point to Prepare, and then click Encrypt Document.
  3. In the Encrypt Document dialog box, in the Password box, delete the encrypted password, and then click OK.
  4. Save the file.

Set a password to modify a Word document:

  1. Click the Microsoft Office Button , click Save As, and on the bottom of the Save As dialog, click Tools.
  2. On the Tools menu, click General Options. The General Options dialog opens.
  3. Under File sharing options for this document, in the Password to modify box, type a password.
  4. In the Confirm Password dialog, re-type the password. Click OK.
  5. Click Save.

Q: How do I reduce the amount of SPAM I get?

If you are experiencing a large amount of SPAM in your Inbox then chances are that you do not have the SPAM filter activated. Please follow the instructions below to filter out SPAM E-Mail.

  • In Outlook go to the Home Tab then click Rules then Create Rule.
  • After you click on Create Rule a window will pop up, check and fill in the Subject Contains field as shown below and also check the Move The Item To Folder: field and select Junk E-Mail. Use the Select Folder Button to select the Junk E-Mail Folder.
  • Click OK on the next pop up check the Run This Rule Now box and click ok.
  • This should now filter out all E-Mails with SPAM in your Inbox.

Q: How do I reset my UTORid?

The Discovery Commons Service Desk does not have the ability to reset UTORid passwords, make UTORid account information changes, or update UTORid account status. If you require assistance for any of these issues, please contact the Information Commons, located on the first floor of Robarts Library. You may walk up for service (please bring photo ID for account changes) or telephone for assistance (416 978 HELP). You can visit to verify their operating hours.

Q: How do I set up a generic email account for my department/program?

Information Commons is responsible for creating generic email accounts. Please visit their website at for instructions on setting up an account for your department.

Q: How do I set up a listserv?

You can set up a listserv online at

Q: How do I terminate my account in ShareFile?

It’s pretty simple:

  • Take a local backup of all your data from your ShareFile account.
  • Send the request to the Discovery Commons service desk to terminate your account
  • Your account will be disabled for one month, and then will be deleted

Q: How do I stream an event from the large MSB classrooms (MSB-3153 or MSB-3154) to remote participants?

Please contact Discovery Commons for options on how to do this.

Q: How do staff / faculty awaiting their appointment get their UTORid?

These UTORids are necessary for to persons who have been engaged by the Faculty of Medicine as graders, preceptors, clinical supervisors and staff but, who have not yet received their appointments. If you fall into this category, (and do not yet appear in HRIS), your sponsoring department, should request a standard UTORid through Discovery Commons. While you await your appointment, Discovery Commons can issue your UTORid which with enable you to access Blackboard only. Full access to the University’s libraries, wireless system and teaching stations are granted when the business officer of your sponsoring department completes your HRIS profile.

Q: How do the student microphones in the large MSB classrooms (MSB 3153 and MSB 3154) work?

A student presses the microphone button in front of them to alert the professor they have a question. The Take Next button on the lectern lights up in blue and a red light turns on just above the centre monitor to indicate there is a student question. The professor presses the Take Next button, turning on the student microphone. When the classrooms in Mississauga are connected via videoconference to these classrooms, the microphones in the Mississauga classrooms operate the same way, allowing students there to ask questions as well.

Q: I am getting a Samsung Error: “Network disabled because Internet connection is slow.”

The Galaxy S3, Galaxy S4, Galaxy Note 3, and some other Samsung phones have a connection feature known as “Auto Network Switch” which may cause the "Network disabled because Internet connection is slow" error to occur. This "Auto Network Switch" setting will need to be disabled in order to connect to the card. To do this:

1. Open your phone's settings
2. Press the WiFi on the phone
3. Select Advanced and scroll down to the Auto Network Switch option
4. Uncheck the Auto Network Switch option.
5. Exit and this should fix the error.

Other Android devices may have slightly different options. Look for 'Check for internet service' or 'Avoid poor networks' in your Wifi and advanced Wifi settings and make sure that these are also disabled.

Q: I am in a course which uses SPSS software; does this facility have a place with the software installed?

Certain software titles (SPSS, SAS, etc.) may be available on certain subsets of our computer lab computers; to find out more, contact the Service Desk.

Q: I am unable to open folders in ShareFile on my desktop

You may need to uninstall and reinstall the tool.

  • Completely end the sync engine process by following these steps:
    • Right click on the task bar at the bottom of your screen and choose 'Start Task Manager'
    • Under the 'Processes' tab find 'Syncengine.exe*32', highlight and choose 'End Process'
  • Delete the Configuration file:
    • Press the Windows key and 'R' simultaneously on your keyboard
    • Enter '%appdata%' and press enter
    • Navigate to ShareFile\SyncEngine\sfconfig and delete this file
  • Once this is completed, uninstall and reinstall ShareFile.

Q: I can log in with my UTORid but cannot access the web application. How can I resolve this?

You may not have the correct authorizations to view the web application content. Please contact the system administrator to confirm your UTORid and authorization.

Q: I cannot log in with my UTORid?

If your utorid is prefixed with ‘qq’ you have been assigned a temporary utorid that has an expiration of a maximum of ONE year so it is possible that this temporary utorid has expired. If you would like a permanent utorid you should contact your business officer. If you do not have a permanent utorid and have problems signing in you should contact information commons (

Q: I have a presentation that I’m giving to a group at the MSB and I would like to offer this to participants off-site as well. How can I do this?

Please contact Discovery Commons for opptions on streaming your presentation to a remote audience.

Q: I have a virus on my system, and now my internet has stopped working.

Infected PCs often attempt to contact other systems on the network to spread the virus. If your PC is detected doing this your IP address will be blocked until the system is cleaned. We advise that you have a Discovery Commons technician assist with the cleanup to ensure the viruses are fully removed. We can also help you re-activate your IP address.

Q: I need help logging into the Teaching Station for my lecture. What do I do?

Using the touch screen, you can log into the teaching station with your UTORid and password. If you do not have access, press the intercom button on the lectern for assistance, or call Learning Space Management at 416-978-0423.

Q: I need to book a webconference for a meeting, what details are required to set it up?

To book a webconference for a meeting or event, please fill out this form

Q: I've heard that I should use an encrypted USB drive. What do you recommend?

University policy and established practice require that personal information (PI), if it’s not stored on a secure server, must be encrypted. The use of whole-disk encryption ensures that, if the storage device (like a USB drive or laptop) is lost or stolen, the data on it will be inaccessible and would therefore not be considered to have been exposed by the Information and Privacy Commissioner. For a long time, encrypted USB drives tended to be significantly more expensive than unencrypted ones, which slowed adoption. However, much lower-priced options have become available in recent years. Our recommendation is the Kingston DataTraveler Locker+ encrypted drive, which is compatible with both Windows and Mac operating systems. These drives are stocked by MedStore.

Q: Is the Discovery Commons open after 5pm for students?

Yes, the Discovery Commons foyer (MSB 3172) is available to students 24/7 with their building access swipe card.

Q: I’m finding spam messages or bouncebacks to messages in my Inbox from myself. I know I didn’t send these messages. Why is this happening?

It’s called “spoofing”. Hackers may have gotten your email address from somewhere, and rather than using their own email address to send out Spam, they are using your email address. Unfortunately, there’s very little we can do about this since the mail protocol allows anyone to put anything in the “From: “ field of a message being sent.

Q: My email was working fine before I went on vacation, but since I got back I no longer get email from outside sources in my Inbox. What happened?

You most likely enabled an auto-reply on the UTORid website. Doing this removes a forwarding that’s critical for your exchange account to function with your @utoronto email address. Contact the helpdesk to have a technician assist you with re-enabling the forwarding. To avoid this problem, please use the Outlook Out of Office assistant to notify users of your absence.

Q: Outlook just signed me out and now I have lost internet connection. Why?

It is possible that the outage is temporary. Please try again in five minutes. If the outage continues, call the Service Desk to report the outage.

Q: What are media file types?

Media file types are the various ways in which media can be encoded in order that they play back in expected ways for different purposes. File types are denoted by the 3 (or 4) characters after the name of the file and preceded by a period.

File types contain specific codecs that allow the media to be read by an operating system, media player or application. While many codecs play on many current devices, they are not standardized and universally compatible. A common file type such as one listed below may have been compressed using an uncommon or defunct codec, resulting in a file that will no longer play.

Sometimes, media files need to be converted from one file type to another to be used in an application. If the file is quite old and uses a defunct codec, it may not be able to be converted.

Common video file types are:

  • .mov
  • .mp4
  • .avi
  • .mpg

Common audio file types are:

  • .mp3
  • .wav
  • .m4a
  • .aiff

Common still image file types are:

  • .jpg medi
  • .jpeg
  • .png
  • .gif

Q: What computer security precautions I should consider as an end-user?

Here are some of the more important precautions that we advise for everyone:

  • Encrypt all mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets, USB keys)
  • Don’t login to sensitive web applications from a public computer or public WiFi network
  • Don’t cache your username and password in your workstation (i.e. “remember me”)
  • Remember to log off at the end of a session
  • Use different sets of logins and passwords for different web applications and services, and especially for personal and work systems
  • Regularly change your passwords used in critical web applications
  • Report abnormal behavior to the service provider immediately
  • Ensure that the operating system and system components like Internet Explorer (browser) and Microsoft Office are fully patched and up-to-date
  • Install a personal firewall as well as anti-virus software with the latest virus signatures
  • Don’t download software, plug-ins, or browser toolbars from unknown sources

Q: What general security precautions does Discovery Commons take for web servers?

We take a range of industry-standard precautions, including:

  • We configure the web server securely according to the vendor’s security guidelines
  • We identify application files on the web server and protect them with access controls
  • We run web server processes with appropriate privilege accounts. We avoid running web server processes using full privileged accounts (e.g. ‘root’, ‘SYSTEM’, ‘Administrator’)
  • We configure web server software to prevent any leak of information such as web server software version, internal IP address, directory structure, etc.
  • We configure access rights so that server software cannot modify files being served to users. In other words, the web server software should have read-only access rights to those files
  • We apply the latest security patches to web server software

The University’s latest security baseline can be found on the ISEA website (ISEA is a part of ITS).

Q: What is the difference between webcasting and webconferencing?

Webcasting is a one-to-many technology, commonly used for broadcasting live presentations and other events where there are speakers and an audience. A camera image shows the speaker(s), microphones transit the speaker’s voice, and if there is a presentation, such as a powerpoint, that can be shown as well. An audience can be present with the presenter and view the session in person, and others can experience the live session while at their computers (this is the remote audience). The remoter audience receives a link in advance of the event, and at the scheduled time, will see and hear the webcast when they click the link. The remote audience has the option of using a chat box to communicate with other remote participants, but cannot be seen or heard by the presenting site. Often, the chat is used to allow remote participants to ask questions, and a moderator at the presenting site monitors the chat and relays questions to the presenter or answers them.  See an infographic of webcasting here 

Webconferencing technology is used when collaboration between online participants is important, such as during a course or group training session, and remote participants can all have input. There is usually a moderator who initiates the conference, and using settings, can control how much or how little input participants will have. Participants can be seen and heard via their own webcams, and can also chat. They can also be given write access to any displayed documents or whiteboards. Webconferencing requires special software, but usually only the moderator requires the full version and participants connect via a free client that is downloaded onto their own computer. Examples of webconferencing software are GoToMeeting and Adobe Connect. See an infographic of webconferencing here

A webinar is a commonly used term for a webcast or webconference that has, as its content, a seminar or training session.

Q: What is the difference between “hosting” and “posting” a media file?

When media, such as a video or audio, appears on a web page, there are two necessary elements that allow it to play: one is the text on the screen, known as a hyperlink, and the other is the fact that there is a media file on a server somewhere that the text is linked to. The hyperlink (commonly referred to simply as the link) is posted on a webpage; the media file is hosted on the server.

Sometimes, in place of a link, a “player” is embedded on the web page (sometimes this is referred to as an “embed code”), which appears to play to media file directly on the page. However, the media file itself is still hosted on a remote server.

Q: What is the process if I wanted to have the ability to work and remote from home?

Please complete the Request for Remote Desktop Access form, which requires your supervisor’s approval, and send the completed, signed form to We will configure the network to allow remote access, and will send a technician to set your computer up for it.

Q: What is your turn around time for scoring tests/exams?

Processing time for test scores is 2-3 business days.

Q: What is “aspect ratio” and why should I care?

Aspect ratio refers to the ratio of a display screen’s width to height. Historically, video screens have been almost square with a ratio of 4:3. Recently, this has been replaced with 16:9 or 16:10 ratios, which show a much wider image when compared to height.

If you are showing presentations in any of the Discovery Commons or Mississauga Academy supported rooms, such as the lecture rooms: MSB 3153, MSB 3154, HSC 130, HSC 140 or the meeting rooms MSB 3174, MSB 3175, HSC 170, or HSC 210, you may be interested to know that they display in the 16:9 ratio. In MSB 3175, the 2 LCD displays are 16:9, while the Smart Screen display is 4:3.

The default ratio for creating Microsoft Powerpoint presentations is usually set to display in 4:3; changing this setting to create 16:9 presentations or changing your existing 4:3 presentations to 16:9 allows you to take advantage of all of the screen real estate and makes for a more visually appealing presentation.

Q: What kind of paper scanning, information processing do you do?

We do exam processing on Scantron (“bubble sheet”) and custom-designed forms, and evaluation processing usually on custom-designed forms. The information processing can be designed to suit your requirements. It would be best if you would come by to see the range of options available.

Q: What teaching tools or technological activities are currently available for Faculty to use in an "flipped" classroom teaching model?

Discovery Commons has a number of instructional technologies available such as software capture, web collaboration and presentation publishing programs. The department also has a permanent multimedia studio used for recording professional video and computer presentations to deliver as online lectures; see examples. Our knowledgeable staff can work with you on creating effective professional course material together.

Q: What type of web conferencing service does Discovery Commons offer (i.e. how can I share video, voice and digital content within a group)?

Discovery Commons supports the university’s portal webconferencing tool, Blackboard Collaborate. This is a robust web-based tool allowing for multiple participants to join a virtual meeting room for real-time communication with a personal web cam, microphone and desktop sharing. Students see a video feed of the seminar or meeting leader and (if enabled), feeds of other students. They can watch content, such as Powerpoint, shared desktops, or other documents, and can be allowed to contribute in any of a number of ways. Go here for more information:

Q: When I plug my PC into a wall jack I have no internet access.

For network access you are required to contact the Service Desk and create a ticket requesting an IP address. Please state your full name, department, and room number where you would like to have network access. A technician will contact you and provide an assigned IP. The technician can assist with entering the IP address settings if need be. Do not guess at IP numbers as this may affect other users.

Q: Where is MSB room XXXX?

Yes, the room numbering system in the MSB is confusing! Look at the 4-digit number of the room in question. The first digit is the floor number, the basement being the first floor. The second digit represents north/south, starting with 1 for the north end of the building (towards King’s College Circle) to 3 for the south end (towards College Street). The third and fourth digits represent east/west, starting with 01 for the east end of the building (towards Queens Park) to 99 for the west end (towards Convocation Hall).

Q: Who do I call to unblock an IP address?

Call the Discovery Commons service desk to report the blocked IP. A network administrator will have the IP unblocked, once its been determined that the system is cleaned of viruses or issues with computer is resolved.

Q: Why can’t I use my own laptop for lectures in the large MSB classrooms (MSB 3153 & MSB 3154)?

All of the software necessary for running the lectures, including connecting with remote students and/or faculty, is installed on the PC that is in the room already. Additionally, if a connection or other issue were to occur on an individual's laptop, we have little time to resolve it. The in-room PCs are tested often for the tasks they are required to do, so we are confident that they are the best machines for lecture delivery.

Q: Before when I would delete an email a line would be put across it and then I would purge them, but now they just disappear. How can I recover them? And are they gone for good?

Previously your email account was most likely setup as IMAP, but your Exchange account acts similar to Windows explorer, in that you don’t lose the email but rather it is placed in the Deleted Items folder of your exchange account. You may go there to retrieve your deleted email, or empty the folder which would delete them, just like the Windows recycling bin.

Q: I lost my mobile device during Discovery Commons off business hours. How do I remotely delete (wipe-out) its content?

Please click here and find the file entitled “How to remotely wipe your mobile device,” and follow the instructions.

Q: My department will be moving next month to another location. What do I need to do to ensure that there will be network connectivity at the new location?

Faculty and staff who would like assistance in coordinating a smooth transition for your office move to a new location can contact Discovery Commons to request an office move consultation.

Prior to the move, we can help assess the new location to ensure that there will be sufficient number of active network jacks for all of your computers, printers and other peripherals. We can also provide assistance in disconnecting your computers and packing them into moving bins and then reconnecting your computers in the new location and ensuring full network connectivity for all of your devices. Should you require extra additional network cables, extension cables or power bars in the new location, Discovery Commons can order these items and have them available on move day.

We can also provide assistance in coordinating with Central IT Services to ensure that your staff can continue to use Administrative Systems like AMS and ROSI in the new location

Discovery Commons can work to coordinate with other departments like Facilities, Trades, Movers and Vendors involved in the project if required.